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Publications and Reports

HACCP development / start-up
Model policies, procedures, and standards manuals and technical guides
Foodborne illness information
Personal hygiene, hand washing
Facility cleaning, sanitizing, maintenance, pest control
Food process HACCP technology
Some of the following links are PDF files which are read by Adobe Acrobat Reader. If it is not already on your system, download a free copy from Adobe's web site.
I. System Description
  1. Food facility design principles and checklist (principles and components of a food facility in terms of quality assurance and sanitation)

    a.  Sanitary design principles (PDF file).
         [Baur, F.J. 1973 (January). Food Processing.]
    b.  Quality assurance food facility design checklist (PDF file)

  2. The effect of water quality on food
II. Management

    HACCP development / start-up

  1. AMC-HACCP food manufacturing operations manual
  2. Application of HACCP in retail food production operations (PDF file)
  3. Development and documentation of hazard identification and control procedures for retail food operations (PDF file)
  4. Elements and components of process safety management
  5. HACCP retail process analysis (PDF file)
  6. HACCP: Government control or industry due diligence self control? (PDF file)
  7. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles and application guidelines. [NACMCF. 1998. J. Food Prot. 61(9):1246] (PDF file)
  8. Modification of NACMCF HACCP with risk management to retail food AMC-HACCP
  9. Process performance standards (PDF file). (Retail food process controls that assure hazards are at a tolerable level)
  10. Retail food operations AMC-HACCP technical guidelines
  11. Retail food operations policies, procedures, and standards manual
  12. What is a necessary library? (Reference list for the library of consultants or health departments that intend to certify retail food processes as safe.)

    Model policies, procedures, and standards manuals and technical guides

  1. AMC-HACCP manuals for retail and wholesale food processing operations. As the wholesale and retail food processing industries implement HACCP, there is an important need to standardize the contents of the operations manuals for retail and wholesale food processing operations. While the description of specific menu items and equipment, etc. will vary from facility to facility, the actual topics that should be covered have been known for some years and are uniform.

  2. a.  Retail Food Operations Policies, Procedures, and Standards Manual. (Contents based on: NACMCF. 1998. Hazard analysis and critical control point principles and application guidelines. J. Food Prot. 61(9):1246-1259).
    b.  Food Manufacturing Operations Policies, Procedures and Standards Manual. (Contents based on FDA and USDA process requirements)

  3. Retail food operations AMC-HACCP technical guidelines. The government provides no new food safety principles for the development of new retail processes or improvement of existing processes. Improvement includes: 1) labor time reduction, 2) energy reduction, 3) increased productivity, and 4) reduced cost of cleaning and maintenance. If the retail food industry wants new and improved processes, it will have to validate these processes as safe and then, develop the operating policies, procedures, and standards based on HACCP. This document can be downloaded and used for an 8-to-12-hour class in the principles of retail food HACCP.
  4. Applying HACCP to retail food operations: A series of ten papers. (Narrative overview of the components of the retail food policies, procedures, and standards manual—how to write and use it.)
  5. Employee food hazard control in retail food operations
  6. Food pathogen control data summary (PDF format). (Table showing microbiological control information for the design of retail food processes)
  7. Food safety hazards and controls for the home food preparer
  8. Foodborne illness hazard control strategies for churches and non-regulated group feeding situations
  9. SnyderHACCP retail food operations hazards and controls
  10. Process performance standards ("retail food process controls that assure hazards are at a tolerable level") (PDF format) (Condensed list of processes in retail food operations and process performance standards that assure safety.)
  11. The Retail Food Alliance Operation Certification (PDF format) (Flow diagram for retail food operators who want to do advanced food processing procedures and be compatible with the USDA and FDA Seafood HACCP.)

    Foodborne Illness Information

  1. CDC foodborne illness data (with link to PDF document). This 3-page set of tables contains the latest information from CDC on the causes related to what microorganisms and foods make people ill and the contributing factors.
  2. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other pathogenic strains of E.coli. This 4-page document describes the symptoms of illness caused by E. coli O157:H7, its infective dose, and examples of outbreaks that have occurred. Other E. coli serotypes are reviewed.
  3. Foodborne illness forms for retail food operations (PDF file)
  4. Illnesses of viral origin: Is it a cold, the flu, or foodborne illness?
  5. Management of adverse food reactions in retail food operations (PDF file)
  6. Some foodborne illness agents (PDF file)

    Personal hygiene, hand washing

  1. A "Safe Hands" hand wash program for retail food operations
  2. Cross-contamination of gloves when being put on (PDF file)
  3. Double hand washing with a fingernail brush
  4. Employee food handling / personal hygiene compliance manual (PDF file)
  5. HACCP-based fingertip rinse procedure (PDF file)
  6. Hand washing references (PDF file). (SnyderHACCP's collection of over 300 articles and resources on hand washing, which includes the title, author, and publication plus abstracts and Internet links whenever possible) Please contact us if you see that these resources have not addressed a particular hand washing issue.
  7. Handwashing water temperature effects on the reduction of resident and transient (Serratia marcescens) flora when using bland soap (PDF file) [Barry Michaels et al. 2001. Dairy Food Environ Sanit. 20(12):997]
  8. Measuring the effectiveness of fingertip washing (PDF file).
  9. Nail brush sanitizer effectiveness study (PDF file).
  10. Removal of bacteria from fingertips and the residual amount remaining on the hand washing nailbrush (PDF file).
  11. Removal of Escherichia coli on hands with natural or artificial fingernails
  12. Why gloves are not the solution to the fingertip washing problem

    Facility Cleaning, Sanitizing, Maintenance, Pest Control

  1. Clean up your act in the kitchen. Janitorial Cleaning Services. Copyright 2012. 1001 Avenue of the Americas. Manhattan, NY 10018. 212-813-8399.
  2. Cutting boards and other food contact equipment and utensils (PDF file)
  3. Food contact surface sanitizing (list of abstracts / references)
  4. Food service fly control
  5. How effective and necessary are sanitizing solutions in retail food operations?
  6. Report on bacteriological swab tests (PDF file) - NSF International study for PMI Food Equipment Group on a Hobart C-64A conveyor dishwasher
  7. The evaluation of wooden vs. polyethylene cutting boards using fluorescent powder (PDF file)
  8. The microbiology of cleaning and sanitizing a cutting board
  9. The microbiology of dishcloths in the home kitchen
  10. The reduction of E. coli on various countertop surfaces
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  1. Model supplier letter with control table (PDF file)
IV. HACCP Food Processes


  1. Bimetallic coil thermometer: Unsatisfactory for measuring food temperatures
  2. Calibrating thermometers in boiling water
  3. Choosing the right thermometer (PDF file)
  4. Comparison of the bimetallic coil thermometer and thermocouple for validating food cooling (PDF file)
  5. Food temperature variations along the stem of the bimetallic-coil thermometer (PDF file)
  6. Inaccuracy of food temperature measurement with the bimetallic coil (dial) thermometer (PDF file)
  7. Limitations of bimetallic-coil thermometers in monitoring food safety in retail operations (PDF file)
  8. Measuring the temperature of hamburger as it cooks (PDF file)
  9. The dangerous bimetallic coil thermometer
  10. Three thermometers
  11. What every consumer needs to know about food thermometers


  1. Cooling food in 6 hours in NSF refrigeration units
  2. Cooling gallon containers of food in a commercial walk-in refrigerator (PDF file)
  3. Precooling hot food using kitchen-temperature air
  4. The basics of cooling food
  5. Two-inch and four-inch food cooling in a commercial walk-in refrigerator (PDF file)

    Food Process HACCP Technology

  1. A summary of research information on why internal meat color should not be used as an indication of meat doneness
  2. Adverse reactions to food, food allergy and sensitivity: A retail food hazard problem.
  3. Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs
  4. Assuring safety of egg yolk-based sauces and salad dressings
  5. Bloody chicken
  6. Calculating the total growth of bacteria in cooked food using the FDA code controls
  7. Cooked bacon HACCP study (PDF file)
  8. Cooking hamburgers on a Weber outdoor grill (PDF file)
  9. Cooking turkey from tthe frozen state (PDF file)
  10. Decaffeinating coffee
  11. Food irradiation today
  12. Food irradiation (Listing of abstracts and references to important publications dealing with food irradiation)
  13. Food safety validation study of the effect of CVap oven cooking and holding procedures on the reduction of Salmonella and in the prevention of Clostridium perfringens growth in boneless beef rib roast (Listing of abstracts and references to important publications dealing with food irradiation) (PDF file)
  14. Freezing bananas
  15. Growth of microorganisms in food
  16. HACCP and slow-roasting turkeys
  17. Oxidation-reduction potential of food (PDF file)
  18. Pasteurized-chilled food process hazard control flow diagram
  19. Peking duck HACCP (PDF file)
  20. Preparing a safe turkey
  21. Preventing accidents while slicing food (PDF file)
  22. Safety of pasteurized-chilled food
  23. Some foodborne illness agents—Characteristics and confirmation.
  24. Sushi rice HACCP (recipe, flow chart, HACCP plan) (PDF file) and Quality-assured HACCP recipe procedures
  25. Thawing at ambient temperature on the counter
  26. The menu / recipe section of your retail HACCP operations manual
  27. The microbiology of food market salad and salad bar items
  28. Updated guidelines for use of time and temperature specifications for holding and storing food in retail food operations (PDF file)
  29. Using HACCP for process control and innovation by a chef in retail food operations (PDF file)
  30. Validation of a procedure using CO2 for rapid cooling of cheese sauce (PDF file)
  31. What hamburger is safe?
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